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The DFINITY command-line execution environment (dfx) is the primary tool for creating, deploying, and managing the dapps you develop for the IC.

Use the dfx parent command with flags and subcommands to specify the operations you want to perform with or without optional arguments.

Basic usage

dfx [subcommand] [flag]


You can use the following optional flags with the dfx parent command or with any of the dfx subcommands.

-h, --helpDisplays usage information.
-q, --quietSuppresses informational messages.
-v, --verboseDisplays detailed information about operations.
-V, --versionDisplays version information.


You can use the following options with the dfx command.

--identity <identity>Specifies the user identity to use when running a command.
--logfile <logfile>Writes log file messages to the specified log file name if you use the --log file logging option.
--log <logmode>Specifies the logging mode to use. + You can set the log mode to one of the following:
- stderr to log messages to the standard error facility.
- tee to write messages to both standard output and to a specified file name.
- file to write messages to a specified file name.
The default logging mode is stderr.


Use the following subcommands to specify the operation you want to perform or to view usage information for a specific command.

For reference information and examples, select an appropriate subcommand.

bootstrapRemoved. Use the start command instead.
buildBuilds canister output from the source code in your project.
cacheManages the dfx cache on the local computer.
canisterManages deployed canisters .
deployDeploys all or a specific canister from the code in your project. By default, all canisters are deployed.
diagnoseDetects known problems in the current environment caused by upgrading DFX, and suggests commands to fix them. These commands can be batch-run automatically via dfx fix
fixApplies one-time fixes for known problems in the current environment caused by upgrading DFX. Makes no changes that would not have been suggested by dfx diagnose
generateGenerate type declarations for canisters from the code in your project
helpDisplays usage information for a specified subcommand.
identityEnables you to create and manage the identities used to communicate with the IC.
infoDisplays information like port numbers and version numbers.
ledgerEnables you to interact with accounts in the ledger canister running on the Internet Computer.
newCreates a new project.
pingSends a response request to the IC or the local canister execution environment to determine network connectivity. If the connection is successful, a status reply is returned.
quickstartPerform initial one time setup for your identity and/or wallet.
remoteCommands used to work with remote canisters.
replicaRemoved. Use the start command instead.
schemaPrints the schema for dfx.json.
startStarts the local canister execution environment a web server for the current project.
stopStops the local canister execution environment.
upgradeUpgrades the version of dfx installed on the local computer to the latest version available.
walletEnables you to manage cycles, controllers, custodians, and addresses for the default cycles wallet associated with the currently-selected identity.


You can use the dfx parent command to display usage information or version information. For example, to display information about the version of dfx you currently have installed, you can run the following command:

dfx --version

To view usage information for a specific subcommand, specify the subcommand and the --help flag. For example, to see usage information for dfx build, you can run the following command:

dfx build --help

Using logging options

You can use the --verbose and --quiet flags to increment or decrement the logging level. If you don’t specify any logging level, CRITICAL, ERROR, WARNING, and INFO messages are logged by default. Specifying one verbose flag (-v) increases the log level to include DEBUG messages. Specifying two verbose flags (-vv)increases the logging level to include both DEBUG and TRACE messages.

Adding a --quiet flag decreases the logging level. For example, to remove all messages, you can run a command similar the following:

dfx build -qqqq

Keep in mind that using TRACE level logging (--vv) generates a lot of log messages that can affect performance and should only be used when required for troubleshooting or analysis.

To output log messages to a file named newlog.txt and display the messages on your terminal when creating a new project, you can run a command similar to the following:

dfx new hello_world --log tee --logfile newlog.txt

Specifying a user identity

If you create user identities with the dfx identity new command, you can then use the --identity comment-line option to change the user context when running other dfx commands.

In the most common use case, you use the --identity option to call specific canister functions to test access controls for specific operations.

For example, you might want to test whether the devops user identity can call the modify_profile function for the accounts canister by running the following command:

dfx canister call accounts modify_profile '("Kris Smith")' --identity devops