Skip to main content

Stable Regions

The Region library provides low-level access to Internet Computer stable memory.

Motoko stable variables, while convenient to use, require serialization and deserialization of all stable variables on upgrade (see Stable variables and upgrade methods). During an upgrade, the current values of stable variables are first saved to IC stable memory, then restored from stable memory after the new code is installed. Unfortunately, this mechanism does not scale to canisters that maintain large amounts of data in stable variables: there may not be enough cycle budget to store then restore all stable variables within an upgrade, resulting in failed upgrades. Due to the current 32-bit address space of Motoko, stable variables cannot store more than 4GiB of data.

Additionally, some stable variables use a representation that is not itself stable, requiring a non-trivial pre-upgrade routine to pre-process the data into a stable form. These pre-upgrade steps are critical, and if they trap for any reason, the Motoko canister is forever stuck in a useless, inoperable state.

To avoid these upgrade hazards, actors can elect to use a lower-level Region library for stable memory. The library allows the programmer to incrementally allocate pages of (64-bit) IC stable memory and use those pages to incrementally read and write data in a user-defined binary format.

Several pages may be allocated at once, with each page containing 64KiB. Allocation may fail due to resource limits imposed by the Internet Computer. Pages are zero-initialized.

While the user allocates at the granularity of 64KiB pages, the implementation will allocate at the coarser granularity of a block (currently 128) of physical IC stable memory pages.

The Motoko runtime system ensures there is no interference between the abstraction presented by the Region library and an actor’s stable variables, even though the two abstractions ultimately use the same underlying (concrete) stable memory facilities available to all IC canisters. This runtime support means that is safe for a Motoko program to exploit both stable variables and Region, within the same application.

Further, distinct Regions use distinct pages of stable memory, ensuring that two distinct Regions can not interfere with each other's data representations during normal operation, or during an upgrade.

The Library

Support for stable memory is provided by the Region library in package base.

The interface to the Region library consists of functions for querying and growing the currently allocated set of stable memory pages, plus matching pairs of load, store operations for most of Motoko’s fixed-size scalar types.

More general loadBlob and storeBlob operations are also available for reading/writing binary blobs and other types that can be encoded as Blobs (e.g. Text values) of arbitrary sizes, using Motoko supplied or user-provided encoders and decoders.

module {

// A stateful handle to an isolated region of IC stable memory.
// `Region` is a stable type and regions can be stored in stable variables.
type Region = Prim.Types.Region;

// Allocate a new, isolated `Region` of size 0.
new : () -> Region;

// Current size of the region `r` in pages.
// Each page is 64KiB (65536 bytes).
// Initially `0`.
size : (r : Region) -> (pages : Nat64);

// Grow current `size` of region `r` by `pagecount` pages.
// Each page is 64KiB (65536 bytes).
// Returns previous `size` when able to grow.
// Returns `0xFFFF_FFFF_FFFF_FFFF` if remaining pages of physical stable memory insufficient.
grow : (r : Region, new_pages : Nat64) -> (oldpages : Nat64);

// read ("load") a byte from a region, by offset.
loadNat8 : (r : Region, offset : Nat64) -> Nat8;

// write ("store") a byte into a region, by offset.
storeNat8 : (r : Region, offset : Nat64, value: Nat8) -> ();

// ... and similar for Nat16, Nat32, Nat64,
// Int8, Int16, Int32 and Int64 ...

loadFloat : (r : Region, offset : Nat64) -> Float;
storeFloat : (r : Region, offset : Nat64, value : Float) -> ();

// Load `size` bytes starting from `offset` in region `r` as a `Blob`.
// Traps on out-of-bounds access.
loadBlob : (r : Region, offset : Nat64, size : Nat) -> Blob;

// Write all bytes of `blob` to region `r` beginning at `offset`.
// Traps on out-of-bounds access.
storeBlob : (r : Region, offset : Nat64, value : Blob) -> ()



To demonstrate the Region library, we present a simple implementation of a logging actor that records text messages in a scalable, persistent log.

The example illustrates the simultaneous use of stable variables and stable memory. It uses a single stable variable, state, to keep track of the two regions and their size in bytes, but stores the contents of the log directly in stable memory.

import Nat32 "mo:base/Nat32";
import Nat64 "mo:base/Nat64";
import Text "mo:base/Text";
import Region "mo:base/Region";

actor StableLog {

// Index of saved log entry.
public type Index = Nat64;

// Internal representation uses two regions, working together.
stable var state = {
bytes =;
var bytes_count : Nat64 = 0;
elems = ();
var elems_count : Nat64 = 0;

// Grow a region to hold a certain number of total bytes.
func regionEnsureSizeBytes(r : Region, new_byte_count : Nat64) {
let pages = Region.size(r);
if (new_byte_count > pages << 16) {
let new_pages = ((new_byte_count + ((1 << 16) - 1)) / (1 << 16)) - pages;
assert Region.grow(r, new_pages) == pages

// Element = Position and size of a saved a Blob.
type Elem = {
pos : Nat64;
size : Nat64;

let elem_size = 16 : Nat64; /* two Nat64s, for pos and size. */

// Count of elements (Blobs) that have been logged.
public func size() : async Nat64 {

// Constant-time random access to previously-logged Blob.
public func get(index : Index) : async Blob {
assert index < state.elems_count;
let pos = Region.loadNat64(state.elems, index * elem_size);
let size = Region.loadNat64(state.elems, index * elem_size + 8);
let elem = { pos ; size };
Region.loadBlob(state.bytes, elem.pos, Nat64.toNat(elem.size))

// Add Blob to the log, and return the index of it.
public func add(blob : Blob) : async Index {
let elem_i = state.elems_count;
state.elems_count += 1;

let elem_pos = state.bytes_count;
state.bytes_count += Nat64.fromNat(blob.size());

regionEnsureSizeBytes(state.bytes, state.bytes_count);
Region.storeBlob(state.bytes, elem_pos, blob);

regionEnsureSizeBytes(state.elems, state.elems_count * elem_size);
Region.storeNat64(state.elems, elem_i * elem_size + 0, elem_pos);
Region.storeNat64(state.elems, elem_i * elem_size + 8, Nat64.fromNat(blob.size()));


The shared add(blob) function allocates enough stable memory to store the given blob, and writes the blob contents, its size, and its position into the pre-allocated regions. One region is dedicated to storing the blobs of varying sizes, and the other is dedicated to storing their (fixed-sized) meta data.

The shared get(index) query reads anywhere from the log without traversing any unrelated memory.

Because StableLog allocates and maintains its (potentially large) log data directly in stable memory and uses just a small and fixed amount of storage for actual stable variables (here state), upgrading StableLog to a new implementation (perhaps to provide more functionality) should not consume too many cycles, regardless of the current size of the log.