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ICRC-1 standard


ICRC-1 is a token standard created by the Internet Computer working group. ICRC stands for "Internet Computer Request for Comments", you can find documentation on the working group here. The ICRC-1 is a standard for fungible tokens on the Internet Computer. This means that any ICRC-1 ledger has to implement at least the specifications that are defined there.

However, there are extensions to this standard. One of them being ICRC-2, which you can read up on here. Further, officially supported standards by the reference implementation can be found here.



A principal can have multiple accounts. Each account of a principal is identified by a 32-byte string called subaccount. Therefore an account corresponds to a pair (principal, subaccount).

The account identified by the subaccount with all bytes set to 0 is the default account of the principal.

type Subaccount = blob;
type Account = record { owner : principal; subaccount : opt Subaccount; };


This section will give you an overview of the ICRC-1 standard methods. If you want to have a more detailed description on how to interact with those endpoints, you can have a look at the guide on how to interact with an ICRC-1 ledger.


Returns the name of the token (e.g., MyToken).

icrc1_name : () -> (text) query;


Returns the symbol of the token (e.g., ICP).

icrc1_symbol : () -> (text) query;


Returns the number of decimals the token uses (e.g., 8 means to divide the token amount by 100000000 to get its user representation).

icrc1_decimals : () -> (nat8) query;


Returns the default transfer fee.

icrc1_fee : () -> (nat) query;


Returns the list of metadata entries for this ledger. See the "Metadata" section below.

type Value = variant { Nat : nat; Int : int; Text : text; Blob : blob };
icrc1_metadata : () -> (vec record { text; Value }) query;


Returns the total number of tokens on all accounts except for the minting account.

icrc1_total_supply : () -> (nat) query;


Returns the minting account if this ledger supports minting and burning tokens.

icrc1_minting_account : () -> (opt Account) query;


Returns the balance of the account given as an argument.

icrc1_balance_of : (Account) -> (nat) query;


Transfers amount of tokens from account record { of = caller; subaccount = from_subaccount } to the to account. The caller pays fee tokens for the transfer.

type TransferArgs = record {
from_subaccount : opt Subaccount;
to : Account;
amount : nat;
fee : opt nat;
memo : opt blob;
created_at_time : opt nat64;

type TransferError = variant {
BadFee : record { expected_fee : nat };
BadBurn : record { min_burn_amount : nat };
InsufficientFunds : record { balance : nat };
CreatedInFuture : record { ledger_time: nat64 };
Duplicate : record { duplicate_of : nat };
GenericError : record { error_code : nat; message : text };
icrc1_transfer : (TransferArgs) -> (variant { Ok: nat; Err: TransferError; });

The caller pays the fee. If the caller does not set the fee argument, the ledger applies the default transfer fee. If the fee argument does not agree with the ledger fee, the ledger MUST return variant { BadFee = record { expected_fee = ... } } error.

The memo parameter is an arbitrary blob that has no meaning to the ledger. The ledger SHOULD allow memos of at least 32 bytes in length. The ledger SHOULD use the memo argument for transaction deduplication.

The created_at_time parameter indicates the time (as nanoseconds since the UNIX epoch in the UTC timezone) at which the client constructed the transaction. The ledger SHOULD reject transactions that have created_at_time argument too far in the past or the future, returning variant { TooOld } and variant { CreatedInFuture = record { ledger_time = ... } } errors correspondingly.

The result is either the transaction index of the transfer or an error.


Returns the list of standards this ledger implements. See the "Extensions" section below.

icrc1_supported_standards : () -> (vec record { name : text; url : text }) query;

The result of the call should always have at least one entry,

record { name = "ICRC-1"; url = "" }


The base standard intentionally excludes some ledger functions essential for building a rich DeFi ecosystem, for example:

  • Reliable transaction notifications for smart contracts.
  • The block structure and the interface for fetching blocks.
  • Pre-signed transactions.

The standard defines the icrc1_supported_standards endpoint to accommodate these and other future extensions. This endpoint returns names of all specifications (e.g., "ICRC-42" or "DIP-20") implemented by the ledger.


A ledger can expose metadata to simplify integration with wallets and improve user experience. The client can use the icrc1_metadata method to fetch the metadata entries. All the metadata entries are optional.

Key format

The metadata keys are arbitrary Unicode strings and must follow the pattern <namespace>:<key>, where <namespace> is a string not containing colons. Namespace icrc1 is reserved for keys defined in this standard.

Standard metadata entries

KeyExample valueSemantics
icrc1:symbolvariant { Text = "XTKN" }The token currency code (see ISO-4217). When present, should be the same as the result of the icrc1_symbol query call.
icrc1:namevariant { Text = "Test Token" }The name of the token. When present, should be the same as the result of the icrc1_name query call.
icrc1:decimalsvariant { Nat = 8 }The number of decimals the token uses. For example, 8 means to divide the token amount by 108 to get its user representation. When present, should be the same as the result of the icrc1_decimals query call.
icrc1:feevariant { Nat = 10_000 }The default transfer fee. When present, should be the same as the result of the icrc1_fee query call.

Transaction deduplication

Consider the following scenario:

  • An agent sends a transaction to an ICRC-1 ledger hosted on ICP.
  • The ledger accepts the transaction.
  • The agent loses the network connection for several minutes and cannot learn about the outcome of the transaction.

An ICRC-1 ledger should implement transfer deduplication to simplify the error recovery for agents. The deduplication covers all transactions submitted within a pre-configured time window TX_WINDOW (for example, last 24 hours). The ledger may extend the deduplication window into the future by the PERMITTED_DRIFT parameter (for example, 2 minutes) to account for the time drift between the client and the Internet Computer.

The client can control the deduplication algorithm using the created_at_time and memo fields of the transfer call argument:

  • The created_at_time field sets the transaction construction time as the number of nanoseconds from the UNIX epoch in the UTC timezone.
  • The memo field does not have any meaning to the ledger, except that the ledger will not deduplicate transfers with different values of the memo field.

The ledger SHOULD use the following algorithm for transaction deduplication if the client set the created_at_time field:

  • If created_at_time is set and is before time() - TX_WINDOW - PERMITTED_DRIFT as observed by the ledger, the ledger should return variant { TooOld } error.
  • If created_at_time is set and is after time() + PERMITTED_DRIFT as observed by the ledger, the ledger should return variant { CreatedInFuture = record { ledger_time = ... } } error.
  • If the ledger observed a structurally equal transfer payload (i.e., all the transfer argument fields and the caller have the same values) at transaction with index i, it should return variant { Duplicate = record { duplicate_of = i } }.
  • Otherwise, the transfer is a new transaction.

If the client did not set the created_at_time field, the ledger SHOULD NOT deduplicate the transaction.

Minting account

The minting account is a unique account that can create new tokens and acts as the receiver of burnt tokens.

Transfers from the minting account act as mint transactions depositing fresh tokens on the destination account. Mint transactions have no fee.

Transfers to the minting account act as burn transactions, removing tokens from the token supply. Burn transactions have no fee but might have minimal burn amount requirements. If the client tries to burn an amount that is too small, the ledger should reply with the following:

variant { Err = variant { BadBurn = record { min_burn_amount = ... } } }

The minting account is also the receiver of the fees burnt in regular transfers.

Textual encoding of accounts

Each ICRC-1 account has two components: the owner (up to 29 bytes) and the subaccount (32 bytes). If a subaccount is not included, it is equal to an array comprised of 32 zero bytes.

type Account = { owner : principal; subaccount : opt blob };

Default accounts

The account's textual representation coincides with the account owner's principal text encoding if the subaccount isn't set or equal to an array comprised of 32 zero bytes.

Account.toText(record {
owner = principal "k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae";
subaccount = null;
}) = "k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae"
Account.toText(record {
owner = principal "k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae",
subaccount = opt vec {0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0};
}) = "k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae"

Non-default accounts

An account with non-default subaccounts consists of the following parts:

  • The textual encoding of the owner's principal (as described in the IC interface specification).

  • A dash character - that separates the principal from the checksum.

  • The CRC-32 checksum, containing the concatenated bytes of the principal and the subaccount encoded in Base 32 encoding, without padding, and using lower-case letters.

  • A period character . that separates the checksum from the subaccount.

  • The hex-encoded bytes of the subaccount, with all leading '0' characters omitted.

Account.toText({ owner; ?subaccount }) = {
let checksum = bigEndianBytes(crc32(concatBytes(Principal.toBytes(owner), subaccount)));
Principal.toText(owner) # '-' # base32LowerCaseNoPadding(checksum) # '.' # trimLeading('0', hex(subaccount))

In the following example, dfxgiyy is the checksum and 102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f20 is the hex representation of the subaccount with stripped leading zeros:

Account.toText(record {
owner = principal "k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae",
subaccount = opt vec {1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8;9;10;11;12;13;14;15;16;17;18;19;20;21;22;23;24;25;26;27;28;29;30;31;32};
}) = "k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae-dfxgiyy.102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f20"


k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6aeOK: { owner = "k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae", subaccount = null }A valid principal is a valid account.
k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae-q6bn32y.ErrorThe representation is not canonical: default subaccount should be omitted.
k2t6j2nvnp4zjm3-25dtz6xhaac7boj5gayfoj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6aeErrorInvalid principal encoding.
k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae-6cc627i.1OK: { owner = "k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae", subaccount = opt blob "\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\00\01" }
k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae-6cc627i.01ErrorThe representation is not canonical: leading zeros are not allowed in subaccounts.
k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae.1ErrorMissing check sum.
k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae-dfxgiyy.102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f20OK: { owner = "k2t6j-2nvnp-4zjm3-25dtz-6xhaa-c7boj-5gayf-oj3xs-i43lp-teztq-6ae"; subaccount = opt blob "\01\02\03\04\05\06\07\08\09\0a\0b\0c\0d\0e\0f\10\11\12\13\14\15\16\17\18\19\1a\1b\1c\1d\1e\1f\20" }


Applications should decode textual representation as follows:

  • Decode the text as if it was a principal into raw_bytes, ignoring the principal length check (some decoders allow the principal to be at most 29 bytes long).
  • If raw_bytes do not end with byte 7F16, return an account with raw_bytes as the owner and an empty subaccount.
  • If raw_bytes end with 7F16:
    • Step 1: drop the last 7F16 byte.
    • Step 2: read the last byte N and drop it. If N > 32 or N = 0, raise an error.
    • Step 3: take the last N bytes and strip them from the input.
      • If the first byte in the stripped sequence is zero, raise an error.
      • Prepend the bytes with (32 - N) zeros on the left to get a 32-byte subaccount.
    • Step 4: return an account with the owner being the rest of the input sequence as the owner and the subaccount being the byte array constructed in the previous step.

In pseudocode:

decodeAccount(text) = case Principal.fromText(text) of
| (prefix · [n, 0x7f]) where Blob.size(prefix) < n ⇒ raise Error
| (prefix · [n, 0x7f]) where n > 32 orelse n = 0 ⇒ raise Error
| (prefix · suffix · [n, 0x7f]) where Blob.size(suffix) = n ⇒
if suffix[0] = 0
then raise Error
else { owner = Principal.fromBlob(prefix); subaccount = Some(expand(suffix)) }
| raw_bytes ⇒ { owner = Principal.fromBlob(raw_bytes); subaccount = None }

expand(bytes) = if Blob.size(bytes) < 32
then expand(0x00 :: bytes)
else bytes