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How the Internet Computer Works

Learn how the Internet Computer blockchain works and explore its technology, open-source repositories, in-depth video academy sessions, white papers, publications, and long-form deep dives.

Bitcoin Integration

The Internet Computer protocol has been extended to add smart contracts to Bitcoin.

System Nervous System (SNS)

The autonomous tokenized governance system that controls the Internet Computer blockchain in a completely open, permissionless, and decentralized manner.

Threshold ECDSA Signing

This feature will enable canister smart contracts to sign with regard to an ECDSA public key while their host subnet has a threshold shared secret key.

Internet Identity

The Internet Computer blockchain replaced usernames and passwords with a more advanced and secure method of cryptographic authentication.

About the Internet Computer

Internet Computer Blockchain Overview

The last original Layer 1 blockchain project has launched a revolutionary public network that provides a limitless environment for smart contracts that run at web speed, serve web, scale, and reduce compute costs by a million times or more. Build everything from DeFi, to mass market tokenized social media services that run on-chain, or extend Ethereum dapps.

The Internet Computer was launched and open-sourced on May 10th 2021 by the DFINITY Foundation.

  1. Learn more
  2. Internet Computer for Geeks – White Paper
  3. Internet Computer Canister SDK

Canister smart contract lifecycle

Here you can see how to create canister smart contracts on the Internet Computer, how to install and upgrade their software, and how to top up canisters with cycles.

Core Protocols

Chain Key Cryptography

Chain Key cryptography is one of the fundamental breakthroughs enabling the Internet Computer to scale to millions of nodes. The most notable innovation of Chain Key cryptography is that the Internet Computer has a single public key, which enables any device to verify the authenticity of artifacts generated by the Internet Computer, even smart watches and mobile phones.

  1. Learn more
  2. Chain Key Cryptography: The Scientific Breakthrough Behind the Internet Computer
  3. Integrating The Internet Computer and Bitcoin Networks

Internet Computer Consensus

The Internet Computer blockchain runs on a network of nodes in independent data centers located around the world. In each of its subnet blockchains, the participating nodes must process the same messages in the same order to ensure that they achieve the same state. To this end, the Internet Computer relies on a novel consensus protocol, as described in this presentation.

  1. Learn more
  2. Achieving Consensus on the Internet Computer
  3. Consensus White Paper

Ingress Message Lifecycle

When a user sends an update call to a canister smart contract on the Internet Computer, it traverses several components before it is actually executed. In a first step, P2P ensures that it is broadcast to a sufficiently large set of other nodes. At some point, consensus forms a block that contains the message and passes it in a batch to message routing, which in turn inserts it into its destination canister’s queue, where it waits for the scheduler to select the next message to be executed. A message is subject to several checks, and a number of conditions must be satisfied for it to make it into the Induction Pool for execution to ensure that the right parties are charged and rewarded for its processing.

Message Routing

The Internet Computer blockchain enables users to send messages to canister smart contracts and canisters to send messages between themselves. For scalability, the Internet Computer is composed of many subnet blockchains and the Internet Computer's Network Nervous System can add new subnets as required. The message routing component routes messages to and from canisters across all of the Internet Computer's subnet blockchains and ensures that new subnets can be added seamlessly.

Network Nervous System: Internet Computer Blockchain Governance

The Network Nervous System (NNS) is the open algorithmic system governing the Internet Computer blockchain. Its most notable innovations include its ability to upgrade the Internet Computer protocol and software running on node machines, onboard new node providers, add node machines into the blockchain network, and create new subnet blockchains to increase capacity. Anyone can participate in the NNS by staking ICP tokens into one or more neurons. Neurons can submit proposals and decide to adopt or reject them. The NNS implements liquid democracy: neurons can follow other neurons a delegate voting power.

  1. Learn more
  2. Network Nervous System front-end dapp
  3. The Network Nervous System: Governing the Internet Computer
  4. Understanding the Internet Computer’s Network Nervous System, Neurons, and ICP Utility Tokens

Noninteractive Distributed Key Generation

NIDKG is a cryptographic protocol to distributedly generate key shares for each of the nodes participating in a subnet blockchain. It applies advanced cryptography, including encryption with forward secrecy and noninteractive zero-knowledge proofs of correct key sharing.

  1. Learn more
  2. Applied Crypto: Introducing Noninteractive Distributed Key Generation
  3. NIDKG White Paper

Peer-to-Peer Layer

The Internet Computer blockchain is designed to be secure, reliable, and scalable. Scalability is provided through subnet blockchains that run Canister smart contracts on a selection of nodes. The peer-to-peer layer ("P2P") enables reliable and secure communication between nodes participating in the same subnet. P2P collects and advertises messages from users, as well as from other nodes, so that they will eventually be replicated across all nodes in the same subnet blockchain.


The Internet Computer blockchain is powered by nodes located in numerous independent data centers around the world. These nodes are running the Internet Computer Protocol (ICP) that ensures security and reliability for canister smart contracts through sufficient replication of canister state and computation. In this talk, the parts of the protocol are explained that enable nodes to catch up to the lasted replicated state and to resume participation in the blockchain after they have been disconnected from the network. The same mechanism is also key when a new node gets added to one of the Internet Computer's subnet blockchains.

State Synchronization

The Internet Computer Protocol has been designed to provide a reliable service despite some of the nodes failing or misbehaving. More precisely, even if a node has been offline for a while or is being added to a subnet, efficient mechanisms are in place to ensure that such a node is able to process messages quickly. This involves learning which other nodes to connect to, gathering the necessary key material and information to participate in the consensus algorithm, and obtaining a recent checkpoint of the state and the queues of the canister smart contracts hosted on the subnet. The latter is particularly challenging, since it can require several GiB of data to be transmitted to the node that is catching up.

Blockchain Protocol Upgrade

The Internet Computer blockchain is governed by the Network Nervous System (NNS), its algorithmic governance system. One of the many duties of the NNS is to orchestrate upgrades to the Internet Computer to a new protocol version, when the community has adopted a upgrade proposal. Making upgrades to any blockchain requires solutions to several challenging problems posed by the nature of a decentralized system including how to allow arbitrary changes to the protocol, preserve state of all canister smart contracts, minimize downtime, and roll out upgrades autonomously.

  1. Learn more
  2. Upgrading the Internet Computer Protocol


Motoko Smart Contract Language

Motoko is a new programming language for smart contracts. It is designed to seamlessly support the programming model of the Internet Computer and makes it easier to take advantage of the unique features of the blockchain. Motoko is strongly typed, actor-based, and has built-in support for orthogonal persistence and asynchronous message passing. Productivity and safety features include automatic memory management, generics, type inference, pattern matching, and both arbitrary- and fixed-precision arithmetic. Messaging transparently employs the Internet Computer’s Candid interface definition language and wire format for typed, high-level, and cross-language interoperability.

  1. Learn more
  2. Motoko Playground
  3. Motoko Programming Language

Certified Variables

Canister smart contracts can declare variables as certified. Whenever set, these variables will automatically get a Merkle tree certificate, signed by the Internet Computer blockchain. This allows anyone to verify the authenticity of this type of data using the Internet Computer's public key.

  1. Learn more
  2. How Internet Computer Responses Are Certified as Authentic
  3. Certified Variables & Assets